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What Do Cyber Investigations Investigate?

A cyber investigation team is responsible for investigating a wide variety of incidents and issues related to cybersecurity and digital forensics. We provide our clients robust solutions to private, personal, familial, legal and corporate cyber matters.

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Cyber investigations are complex and diverse in nature.


There are a myriad of cyber investigations that can be undertaken. You may find the ones you are interested here, but understand this is a huge topic and not all could be included in this article. Your needs may vary, and likely do as most cyber investigations have bits and pieces from different categories of Online cyber investigations or incident response security.

These investigations can be broad-ranging and could include, but are not limited to, the following:

Cyber Investigations

Phishing Scams

  • Email Phishing: Investigation of fraudulent emails that impersonate reputable organizations to steal sensitive information like login credentials and credit card numbers.

  • Spear Phishing: Investigations revolving around more targeted phishing attacks, where specific individuals or companies are targeted.

  • Smishing (SMS Phishing): Investigating scams carried out via SMS messages, enticing recipients to click on malicious links or share personal information.

  • Vishing (Voice Phishing): Investigating fraudulent phone calls where attackers impersonate legitimate entities to solicit personal or financial information over the phone.

  • Website Phishing: Investigating counterfeit websites created to trick visitors into providing sensitive information.

Ransomware Attacks

  • Crypto-Ransomware: Investigating attacks where files and data are encrypted by malware, with the perpetrator demanding a ransom to restore access.

  • Locker Ransomware: Investigating malware that locks users out of their devices, demanding a ransom to unlock them.

  • Ransomware Payment Tracing: Working to trace cryptocurrency payments made to ransomware attackers, aiming to identify the perpetrators.

  • Attack Vector Identification: Identifying how the ransomware infected the system, which could be through email attachments, malicious advertisements, or exploited vulnerabilities.

  • Data Recovery: Assisting in the recovery of data that has been encrypted or otherwise affected by ransomware.

  • Preventive Measures: Developing strategies to prevent future ransomware attacks, such as educating employees and setting up secure backup systems.

Collaborative Approaches

  • Collaborative Investigations: Working with other agencies and organizations to share information and resources for investigating cybercrimes.

  • Public Awareness: Creating awareness campaigns to educate the public on the risks of phishing scams and how to avoid becoming a victim.

  • Reporting Mechanisms: Establishing mechanisms for individuals and organizations to report phishing scams and ransomware attacks promptly and efficiently.

Forensic Analysis

  • Digital Forensics: Conducting detailed forensics analysis to trace the source of phishing emails or the entry point of ransomware attacks.

  • Malware Analysis: Detailed analysis of malware used in attacks to understand its structure, functionality, and origin, and to develop countermeasures.

Legal Aspects:

  • Legal Pursuits: Collaborating with legal teams to pursue legal actions against identified perpetrators.

  • Regulatory Compliance: Ensuring investigations comply with relevant laws and regulations, protecting victim's privacy and data integrity during the investigation.

In a nutshell, cybercrime investigations, specifically into phishing and ransomware attacks, entail a multidisciplinary approach that requires cooperation between different stakeholders and extensive expertise in cybersecurity and digital forensics. The objective is not only to resolve the incident but to bolster security measures to prevent future attacks.

Data Breaches

Unauthorized Access

  • Root Cause Analysis: Conducting an analysis to identify the root cause of the unauthorized access, whether due to vulnerabilities in the system, weak passwords, or other reasons.

  • User Behavior Analytics (UBA): Using analytics to identify potentially malicious activity by analyzing patterns of user behavior and applying algorithms and statistical analyses to detect anomalies that may indicate security issues.

  • Endpoint Security: Enhancing endpoint security to control the data access points to a network and identify potential pathways of unauthorized access.

  • Log Analysis: Investigating server and access logs to identify suspicious activities and understand the depth of the breach.

Insider Threats

  • Behavioral Analysis: Leveraging behavioral analysis techniques to identify and monitor potentially malicious insiders.

  • Data Leakage Prevention: Establishing systems to prevent data leaks by restricting access to sensitive information and monitoring data transfers.

  • Policy Enforcement: Ensuring the proper enforcement of organizational policies to deter insiders from engaging in unauthorized activities.

  • Whistleblower Protections: Setting up mechanisms for employees to report suspicious activities safely and anonymously.

Remediation and Recovery

  • Incident Response Plan: Developing and initiating an incident response plan to contain the breach and recover affected systems and data.

  • Data Recovery: Initiating processes to recover lost data, possibly including working with data recovery experts.

  • System Patching: Updating and patching systems to close vulnerabilities that were exploited during the breach.

Legal and Compliance

  • Regulatory Reporting: Reporting the breach to relevant regulatory bodies in compliance with laws such as GDPR, HIPAA, etc.

  • Consumer Notifications: Informing affected consumers and stakeholders about the breach, sometimes including guidance on protective measures they can take.

  • Legal Recourse: Pursuing legal actions against identified perpetrators, if applicable, and cooperating with law enforcement agencies in the investigation.

Preventive Measures

  • Security Awareness Training: Conducting regular training for employees to enhance awareness of security best practices and to prevent future breaches.

  • Security Audits: Performing regular security audits to identify and mitigate potential vulnerabilities in the system.

  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Implementing MFA to enhance security by requiring multiple forms of verification before granting access.


  • After-Action Review: Conducting a review of the incident and response to identify lessons learned and improve future readiness.

  • Reputation Management: Working to manage the organization's reputation in the wake of a data breach, which might include public relations efforts and customer outreach.

In essence, data breach investigations are multifaceted operations involving technical analysis, remediation efforts, legal compliance, and working towards preventive measures to fortify against future breaches. It is a continuous cycle of improvement to adapt to evolving threats and to safeguard sensitive information robustly.

Fraud Investigations

Identity Theft

  • Source Identification: Identifying the sources and methods used to steal someone's identity, which could involve phishing scams, data breaches, or malware attacks.

  • Victim Assistance: Offering assistance to the victims of identity theft, helping them to report the crime and recover from the effects.

  • Fraudulent Transactions: Investigating unauthorized financial transactions carried out using stolen identities, working with financial institutions and credit bureaus to trace fraudulent activities.

  • Preventive Education: Educating the public on how to protect themselves from identity theft, including safe online practices and the proper handling of personal information.

Credit Card Fraud

  • Skimming: Investigating incidents of skimming, where devices are used to illegally collect data from the magnetic stripe of a credit or debit card.

  • Carding: Addressing carding attacks where fraudsters use stolen card information to make small online purchases to verify the card’s validity.

  • E-Commerce Fraud: Investigating frauds in e-commerce platforms, including account takeovers, and fraudulent listings.

  • Collaborative Efforts: Collaborating with banks, payment processors, and merchants to counteract credit card fraud, sharing intelligence and working together on preventative measures.

Forensic Involvement

  • Forensic Accounting: Employing forensic accountants to trace the complex paths of fraudulent transactions and to uncover the full extent of financial frauds.

  • Digital Forensics: Leveraging digital forensics to extract evidence from electronic devices used in fraudulent activities, helping to build a case against fraudsters.

Legal and Compliance Aspects

  • Legal Pursuits: Working closely with legal teams to prepare cases for prosecution, ensuring that evidence is gathered correctly and legally.

  • Compliance Monitoring: Monitoring organizations' compliance with laws and regulations designed to prevent fraud, working proactively to identify potential weaknesses that could be exploited by fraudsters.

Remedial Actions

  • Fraud Alerts: Issuing fraud alerts to warn consumers and organizations about current fraud threats, helping them to protect themselves.

  • Fraud Victim Support: Providing support services for fraud victims, helping them to recover lost funds and restore their identities.

Preventive Strategies

  • Secure Transaction Environments: Advising organizations on creating secure environments for transactions, using encryption, and secure payment systems to protect customer data.

  • Public Awareness: Conducting public awareness campaigns to educate individuals and organizations about the dangers of fraud and the measures they can take to protect themselves.

  • Staff Training: Offering training to staff in organizations, educating them on recognizing potential fraud and responding effectively to prevent it.

In fraud investigations, the focus is on identifying the perpetrators of fraud, assisting the victims, and working proactively to prevent future occurrences. It is a multidisciplinary endeavor, requiring a deep understanding of both the technical aspects of cybersecurity and the legal frameworks surrounding fraud. It often involves collaboration with a range of stakeholders, including law enforcement agencies, financial institutions, and regulatory bodies, to effectively combat fraud.

Intellectual Property Theft

Trade Secret Theft

  • Source Tracing: Identifying the source of the theft, whether it was an insider job, a breach through an unsecured network, phishing, etc.

  • Collaboration with Legal Teams: Working closely with legal experts to handle cases that involve sensitive corporate data and to initiate legal proceedings if necessary.

  • Forensic Analysis: Performing a forensic analysis to trace the unauthorized access or transmission of trade secrets and to gather evidence for legal proceedings.

  • Damage Assessment: Evaluating the extent of the damage caused by the theft, including potential financial losses and reputation damage.

Copyright Infringement

  • Digital Rights Management (DRM): Investigating violations of DRM protections, which are technologies used to protect copyrighted digital media.

  • Online Platforms: Monitoring online platforms, marketplaces, and social media for unauthorized use of copyrighted materials.

  • Collaborative Actions: Collaborating with other stakeholders, including content creators and other affected parties, to combat copyright infringement collectively.

  • Legal Actions: Facilitating legal actions such as sending cease-and-desist letters, initiating lawsuits, or seeking settlements in cases of copyright infringement.

Protective Measures

  • Security Protocols: Advising organizations on establishing robust security protocols to protect intellectual property.

  • Access Control: Implementing strict access control measures to restrict unauthorized access to sensitive information and IP assets.

Education and Training

  • Employee Education: Conducting workshops and seminars to educate employees on the importance of protecting intellectual property and adhering to copyright laws.

  • Public Awareness: Engaging in campaigns to raise awareness about the importance of respecting intellectual property rights and the legal repercussions of infringement.

Collaborative Interventions

  • Industry Partnerships: Forming partnerships with industry stakeholders to share information and strategies for combating intellectual property theft.

  • Government Liaisons: Collaborating with government agencies and regulatory bodies to address the broader issues of intellectual property theft and to facilitate cross-border cooperation in investigations.

Legal Compliance and Regulation

  • Regulatory Compliance: Ensuring compliance with international and domestic regulations concerning intellectual property rights.

  • Legal Documentation: Assisting in the proper legal documentation of intellectual property to safeguard it from unauthorized usage.

Remedial Actions

  • Incident Response: Creating incident response plans specific to intellectual property theft to address the issue promptly and effectively.

  • Victim Support: Offering support to victims of intellectual property theft, including helping with recovery strategies and legal recourse.

Intellectual property theft investigations are aimed at protecting the intangible assets of individuals and organizations. These investigations involve a deep understanding of both the cyber landscape and legal nuances surrounding intellectual property rights. Proactively building defenses, educating stakeholders, and employing a rapid response strategy are pivotal in navigating the challenges posed by intellectual property theft.

Network Security

Vulnerability Assessments and Penetration Testing

  • Regular Assessments: Conducting regular vulnerability assessments to identify weaknesses in the network infrastructure.

  • Penetration Testing: Performing simulated cyber-attacks (penetration tests) to evaluate the security of the network and to identify potential vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by attackers.

Firewall and Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems

  • Firewall Configuration: Ensuring optimal configuration of firewalls to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.

  • Intrusion Detection and Prevention: Setting up and maintaining intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS) to monitor network and/or system activities for malicious exploits or vulnerabilities.

Infrastructure Security

  • Secure Architecture: Designing a network architecture with security in mind, including the implementation of demilitarized zones (DMZs) to add an additional layer of security.

  • Encryption: Implementing encryption for data at rest and in transit to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access.

Access Control and Authentication

  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Implementing MFA to enhance security by requiring multiple forms of verification before granting access.

  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): Designing access policies where permissions are tied to roles, and not to individuals, thereby enhancing security and simplifying access management.

Secure Communication Channels

  • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs): Setting up VPNs to allow secure access to the network for remote users.

  • Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS): Implementing SSL/TLS protocols to secure network communication, not just the contents of individual messages.

Endpoint Protection

  • Antivirus Software: Ensuring that all devices connected to the network are equipped with up-to-date antivirus software to detect and counteract malware.

  • Patching and Updates: Maintaining a regular schedule for patching systems and applying updates to fix known vulnerabilities.

Monitoring and Incident Response

  • Continuous Monitoring: Implementing systems for continuous monitoring of the network to detect unusual patterns that could indicate a security incident.

  • Incident Response Plan: Developing and testing an incident response plan to ensure a quick and effective response to security incidents.

Employee Training and Awareness

  • Training Programs: Creating ongoing training programs to educate employees on the latest cyber threats and to foster a culture of security awareness.

  • Phishing Simulations: Conducting simulated phishing exercises to help employees recognize phishing attempts and respond appropriately.

In network security, the focus is on protecting the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of data as it is stored in, and transmitted through, network systems. This involves a combination of hardware and software solutions, well-designed network architecture, and policies and procedures that are implemented by well-trained individuals. A cyber investigation team would work to ensure that all these elements are effectively integrated to create a network that is resilient to cyber threats, providing a safe environment for an organization's data and operations.

Technical Surveillance Countermeasures (TSCM)

  • Malware Detection: Identifying malware that facilitates spying, such as keystroke loggers, which record the keystrokes on a computer to steal information.

  • Network Analysis: Conducting a deep analysis of network traffic to identify any suspicious data transmissions indicative of surveillance activity.

  • Email Monitoring: Detecting unauthorized email monitoring or spying and putting measures in place to secure email communications.

Protective and Preventative Measures

  • Security Audits: Performing regular security audits to identify vulnerabilities that could be exploited for surveillance.

  • Security Policy: Developing and implementing security policies that foster a secure environment, minimizing the risks of technical surveillance.

  • Employee Training: Training employees on how to maintain security protocols and recognize potential surveillance threats.

Mobile Device Security

  • Mobile Device Analysis: Performing analysis on mobile devices to detect spyware or malicious apps facilitating unauthorized surveillance.

  • Secure Communication: Advocating and facilitating the use of secure communication tools that offer end-to-end encryption to protect against eavesdropping.

Legal and Compliance Aspects

  • Legal Recourse: Assisting clients in pursuing legal recourse in cases where unauthorized surveillance is detected.

  • Compliance with Laws: Ensuring all TSCM activities are conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, respecting privacy and other legal rights.

Collaborative Endeavors

  • Industry Collaboration: Collaborating with other industry experts to stay abreast of the latest surveillance technologies and countermeasure techniques.

  • Law Enforcement: Working with law enforcement agencies as needed, especially in cases involving criminal activities.

Reporting and Documentation

  • Detailed Reports: Providing clients with detailed reports on the findings of TSCM investigations, including identified vulnerabilities and recommended countermeasures.

  • Confidentiality: Ensuring that all findings from TSCM investigations are handled confidentially to protect the client’s privacy and security.

In TSCM investigations, teams work to identify and neutralize a wide range of surveillance threats, helping to protect the privacy and security of individuals and organizations. It involves a combination of technical expertise, meticulous inspection, and adherence to legal norms, ensuring a secure and surveillance-free environment for the client. Given the rise in sophisticated surveillance technologies, TSCM specialists must continually update their knowledge and tools to effectively counter these threats.

Social Media and Online Harassment Investigations

Initial Response and Strategy Formation

  • First Response Counseling: Offering immediate counseling to the victims to handle the shock and advising on the immediate steps to take, such as collecting evidence.

  • Strategy Formation: Forming a strategy involving a multidisciplinary team to address the harassment issue holistically, considering legal, technical, and psychological aspects.


Investigating cases of harassment and bullying that occur online Cyberbullying investigations involve probing instances where individuals, often minors or young adults, are bullied through digital mediums such as social media platforms, messaging apps, and online gaming environments. Specialists in this field focus on identifying the perpetrators using a variety of techniques including digital forensics to trace IP addresses and analyze digital communications.


Investigating incidents where individuals are stalked through digital platforms Digital stalking investigations pertain to cases where individuals are relentlessly pursued and harassed through online platforms, often involving a violation of personal boundaries and the stalking of their digital footprints. Investigative teams utilize advanced techniques such as social media analytics and IP tracing to track down stalkers, while also helping victims secure their online presence through enhanced privacy settings and digital literacy education. Collaborations with law enforcement can be a vital part of the process, aiding in the appropriate legal actions against stalkers. The objective of these investigations is to provide a sense of safety and security to victims, ensuring they can freely use digital platforms without fear of being stalked, and promoting respectful and consensual interactions in the digital sphere.

Technical Investigations and Evidence Gathering

  • Digital Forensics: Utilizing digital forensics to scrutinize the digital footprints left by harassers, which might include analyzing IP addresses, device IDs, and other metadata.

  • Data Mining: Employing data mining techniques to gather substantial information from various online platforms, which could potentially help in unmasking the perpetrators.

  • Social Engineering: In some instances, using social engineering techniques to gather more information regarding the harasser and to potentially prevent further harassment.

Legal Assistance and Liaison

  • Legal Advice: Offering legal advice to victims, briefing them on the available legal avenues, and the kind of evidence required to build a strong case.

  • Liaison with Law Enforcement: Facilitating the liaison with appropriate law enforcement agencies to report the harassment and to support a thorough investigation.

Crisis Management and Reputation Repair

  • Crisis Communication: Advising on crisis communication to help victims respond effectively to the crisis at hand without escalating the situation further.

  • Reputation Repair: Assisting in rebuilding the victim's online reputation through various strategies, including Search Engine Optimization (SEO) to promote positive content and mitigate the effects of harmful content.

Corporate Espionage

  • Industrial Espionage: Investigating cases of spying and intelligence gathering between corporations.

  • Competitive Intelligence: Investigating ethical and legal boundaries in competitive intelligence operations.

Incident Response

  • Incident Analysis: Analyzing cybersecurity incidents to understand their scope and impact.

  • Incident Mitigation: Helping organizations respond to and mitigate the effects of cybersecurity incidents.

Child Exploitation

  • Child Pornography: Investigating the production, distribution, and possession of child pornography.

  • Online Predators: Investigating individuals who seek to exploit children through online platforms.


Although the brief summaries here do not discuss in great detail all the intricacies and nuances of cyber investigations, it gives you a framework for understanding what are common matters our Private Cyber investigators deal with. If you have a particular matter to discuss, get in touch with us by calling (888) 867-6788.


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