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What Do Cyber Investigations Investigate?

A cyber investigation team is responsible for investigating a wide variety of incidents and issues related to cybersecurity and digital forensics. We provide our clients robust solutions to private, personal, familial, legal and corporate cyber matters.

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Cyber investigations are complex and diverse in nature.


There are a myriad of cyber investigations that can be undertaken. You may find the ones you are interested here, but understand this is a huge topic and not all could be included in this article. Your needs may vary, and likely do as most cyber investigations have bits and pieces from different categories of Online cyber investigations or incident response security.

These investigations can be broad-ranging and could include, but are not limited to, the following:

Cyber Investigations

Phishing Scams

  • Email Phishing: Investigation of fraudulent emails that impersonate reputable organizations to steal sensitive information like login credentials and credit card numbers.

  • Spear Phishing: Investigations revolving around more targeted phishing attacks, where specific individuals or companies are targeted.

  • Smishing (SMS Phishing): Investigating scams carried out via SMS messages, enticing recipients to click on malicious links or share personal information.

  • Vishing (Voice Phishing): Investigating fraudulent phone calls where attackers impersonate legitimate entities to solicit personal or financial information over the phone.

  • Website Phishing: Investigating counterfeit websites created to trick visitors into providing sensitive information.

Ransomware Attacks

  • Crypto-Ransomware: Investigating attacks where files and data are encrypted by malware, with the perpetrator demanding a ransom to restore access.

  • Locker Ransomware: Investigating malware that locks users out of their devices, demanding a ransom to unlock them.

  • Ransomware Payment Tracing: Working to trace cryptocurrency payments made to ransomware attackers, aiming to identify the perpetrators.

  • Attack Vector Identification: Identifying how the ransomware infected the system, which could be through email attachments, malicious advertisements, or exploited vulnerabilities.

  • Data Recovery: Assisting in the recovery of data that has been encrypted or otherwise affected by ransomware.

  • Preventive Measures: Developing strategies to prevent future ransomware attacks, such as educating employees and setting up secure backup systems.

Collaborative Approaches

  • Collaborative Investigations: Working with other agencies and organizations to share information and resources for investigating cybercrimes.

  • Public Awareness: Creating awareness campaigns to educate the public on the risks of phishing scams and how to avoid becoming a victim.

  • Reporting Mechanisms: Establishing mechanisms for individuals and organizations to report phishing scams and ransomware attacks promptly and efficiently.

Forensic Analysis

  • Digital Forensics: Conducting detailed forensics analysis to trace the source of phishing emails or the entry point of ransomware attacks.

  • Malware Analysis: Detailed analysis of malware used in attacks to understand its structure, functionality, and origin, and to develop countermeasures.

Legal Aspects:

  • Legal Pursuits: Collaborating with legal teams to pursue legal actions against identified perpetrators.

  • Regulatory Compliance: Ensuring investigations comply with relevant laws and regulations, protecting victim's privacy and data integrity during the investigation.

In a nutshell, cybercrime investigations, specifically into phishing and ransomware attacks, entail a multidisciplinary approach that requires cooperation between different stakeholders and extensive expertise in cybersecurity and digital forensics. The objective is not only to resolve the incident but to bolster security measures to prevent future attacks.

Data Breaches

Unauthorized Access

  • Root Cause Analysis: Conducting an analysis to identify the root cause of the unauthorized access, whether due to vulnerabilities in the system, weak passwords, or other reasons.

  • User Behavior Analytics (UBA): Using analytics to identify potentially malicious activity by analyzing patterns of user behavior and applying algorithms and statistical analyses to detect anomalies that may indicate security issues.

  • Endpoint Security: Enhancing endpoint security to control the data access points to a network and identify potential pathways of unauthorized access.

  • Log Analysis: Investigating server and access logs to identify suspicious activities and understand the depth of the breach.

Insider Threats

  • Behavioral Analysis: Leveraging behavioral analysis techniques to identify and monitor potentially malicious insiders.

  • Data Leakage Prevention: Establishing systems to prevent data leaks by restricting access to sensitive information and monitoring data transfers.

  • Policy Enforcement: Ensuring the proper enforcement of organizational policies to deter insiders from engaging in unauthorized activities.

  • Whistleblower Protections: Setting up mechanisms for employees to report suspicious activities safely and anonymously.

Remediation and Recovery

  • Incident Response Plan: Developing and initiating an incident response plan to contain the breach and recover affected systems and data.

  • Data Recovery: Initiating processes to recover lost data, possibly including working with data recovery experts.

  • System Patching: Updating and patching systems to close vulnerabilities that were exploited during the breach.

Legal and Compliance

  • Regulatory Reporting: Reporting the breach to relevant regulatory bodies in compliance with laws such as GDPR, HIPAA, etc.

  • Consumer Notifications: Informing affected consumers and stakeholders about the breach, sometimes including guidance on protective measures they can take.

  • Legal Recourse: Pursuing legal actions against identified perpetrators, if applicable, and cooperating with law enforcement agencies in the investigation.

Preventive Measures

  • Security Awareness Training: Conducting regular training for employees to enhance awareness of security best practices and to prevent future breaches.

  • Security Audits: Performing regular security audits to identify and mitigate potential vulnerabilities in the system.

  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA): Implementing MFA to enhance security by requiring multiple forms of verification before granting access.


  • After-Action Review: Conducting a review of the incident and response to identify lessons learned and improve future readiness.

  • Reputation Management: Working to manage the organization's reputation in the wake of a data breach, which might include public relations efforts and customer outreach.

In essence, data breach investigations are multifaceted operations involving technical analysis, remediation efforts, legal compliance, and working towards preventive measures to fortify against future breaches. It is a continuous cycle of improvement to adapt to evolving threats and to safeguard sensitive information robustly.

Fraud Investigations

Identity Theft